Using Hamcrest to assert asynchronous behaviour

January 31, 2009

In order to write a passing acceptance test, I often find the need to poll Selenium for a given situation to be true.  Such polling tests often look like this:

endTime = getCurrentTime() + duration;
failed = true;
while( failed = hasCheckFailed() ){
  sleep( intervalInMillis )
  now = getCurrentTime();
  if( now > endTime ) {
return !failed

This works, but it has 3 pieces of information embedded in it – the check, the duration, and the interval.

This check could be replaced with a hamcrest matcher…

assertThat( thing, poll(duration, interval, delegateMatcher) )

where the poll() method returns  Matcher<Thing>.

However, the implementation of the poll() matcher becomes pretty complex – it’s delegating to a matcher, AND handling the timing concerns.

So, we played with another approach, which is to run the matcher against a finite time series:

assertThat( sample(thing), retry( delegateMatcher ))

When the assertion fails, it generates a message like:

Expected: retrying( delegate matcher description )
Got: sampling every 1 SECONDS for 10 SECONDS(
The sample method returns an Iterable<Thing> whose iterator repeated returns thing until the time runs out. It’s next() method sleeps for the duration. This is where the timing concerns are handled (and nothing else).

The retry matcher just iterates through the iterable until the sequence completes, or the test passes. It doesn’t have any time related logic.

The retry matcher is now easy…:

new TypeSafeMatcher<Iterable<T>>(){
  private Matcher<T> delegate;
  public boolean matchesSafely(Iterable<T> ts) {
    for( T t : ts ){
      if( delegate.matches(t)) return true;
    return false

The sample() method is a bit trickier, but essentially it returns a RealTimeSeries object that has one method: iterator(). This returns a SampleIterator – here is the code:

private class SampleIterator implements Iterator {
   private boolean firstSample = true;
   private long expectedEnd;
   public boolean hasNext() {
     if (firstSample) {
       return true;
     final long endOfNextSample = clock.timeInMillis()
      + interval.toMillis();
     return endOfNextSample <= expectedEnd;
   public T next() {
     if (firstSample) {
       expectedEnd = clock.timeInMillis()
         + max.toMillis();
       firstSample = false;
     } else {
       try {
       } catch (InterruptedException e) {
         return sampledThing;
     return sampledThing;
   public void remove() {
     throw new UnsupportedOperationException();

In practice, we can now write code like:

assertThat( sample(selenium).duration(120), retry(elementIsPresent('element-id')))
assertThat( sample(page).duration(10), retry(hasMessageCount(5)))

and then remove the duplication here

assertThatWithin( duration(120, SECONDS), selenium, elementIsPresent('element-id'))
assertThatWithin( every(10, SECONDS), page, hasMessageCount(5))

The wonders of buildr and winstone.

January 10, 2009

Just to remind myself how good ruby + rake + builder can be, I spent the afternoon trying to create a showcase artifact.  I thought I’d try and see how quickly I could get winstone up and running [its the app server for hudson].

So, I found out that winstone and tomcat disagree on how to handle “AUTHENTICATED_USER”, but otherwise, all I had to was mask the web.xml from my war artifact and transform it into something else.

The buildr script is below.  You have to assume there are two other projects (“db”, and “web”), and we use liquibase and hsqldb for the showcase environment.  I think the script took me 15 minutes to work out, and the rest was cycling around trying to get winstone to fire up (e.g. working out what should go in the new web.xml).

This is extremely succinct compared to ant, and even rake (without buildr) would be harder to create.

        define “showcase” do



            resources.from project(‘web’).file(‘src/main’)

            resources.from _(‘src/main/resources’)

            resources.include( ‘**/webapp/WEB-INF/web.xml’)

            resources.include( ‘**/*showcase*’ )

            resources.filter.using :ant, ‘authorisation.xml.fragment’ => xml_fragment


            package(:war).merge( project(‘web’).package(:war)).exclude( ‘WEB-INF/web.xml’)

            package(:war).include( _(‘target/resources/webapp/WEB-INF’) )

            package(:war).exclude( _(‘target/resources/**/changelog.xml’))

            package(:war).exclude( _(‘target/resources/**/*showcase*’))


            package(:jar).with :manifest =>{ ‘Main-Class’ => ‘showcase.Launcher’}

            package(:jar).include( package(:war), :as => ’embedded.war’)

            package(:jar).merge( artifact(LIQUIBASE_JAR))

            package(:jar).merge( artifact(HSQLDB_CLIENT_JAR))

            package(:jar).include( project(‘db’).file( ‘src/main/resources/changelog.xml’) )

#            package(:jar).


Restlet server for RESTful testing

January 7, 2009

We wanted a stub/mock http rest server to simulate sun’s sso server.  Here it is.  If you want change the current live behaviour, do this in your test/setup code:

//return “string=cookieName” for any request

Restlet restlet = new Restlet() {

public void handle(Request request, Response response) {
response.setEntity(new StringRepresentation(“string=” + ssoCookieName, MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN));

Here’s the server implementation.  The shutdown code is a bit clunky, but it appears the restlet server takes it’s time releasing the HTTP port….

package test;

import org.restlet.Restlet;
import org.restlet.Server;

public class RestletServer {
private static final int RESTFUL_SERVER_PORT = 8182;
private final int restfulServerPort;

private final Server server;
private Restlet activeRestlet;

public RestletServer() {

public RestletServer(int serverPort) {
restfulServerPort = serverPort;
Restlet restlet = new DelegatingRestlet();
server = new Server(Protocol.HTTP, restfulServerPort, restlet);

private static class ShutdownRestletServer implements Runnable {

private final Server server;

public ShutdownRestletServer(Server server) {
this.server = server;

public void run() {
try {
} catch (Exception e) {


private class DelegatingRestlet extends Restlet {

public void handle(Request request, Response response) {
if (activeRestlet != null) {
activeRestlet.handle(request, response);
} else {
super.handle(request, response);


public void start() throws Exception {
Runtime.getRuntime().addShutdownHook(new Thread(new ShutdownRestletServer(server)));


public void setActiveRestlet(Restlet restlet) throws Exception {
activeRestlet = restlet;
if (activeRestlet != null) {
if (!server.isStarted()) {